The first computers were people. That is, electronic computers had given this name because they performed the work that had previously been assigned to people. Earlier “Computer” was the only machine that was used to perform repetitive calculations. Imagine you had a job where hour after hour, day after day, you were to do nothing but compute multiplications. And even on your best days, you wouldn’t be producing answers very fast. As well as, man used his fingers, ropes, beads, bones, pebbles, and other objects for counting. Therefore, inventors have been searching for hundreds of years for a way to mechanize this task. After the enumeration of inventions, the computer was founded in 1833 with all the functionalities. Also, British mathematician Charles Babbage was considered as the father of a computer. Along with that, the lady Ada Augusta Lovelace wrote the first program to the first computer.
Definition of computer
A computer is electronic equipment or device that fulfills basic tasks called input, process, store, and output. Of course, it is a machine. It can execute a finite set of instructions. Besides, that can process data according to those instructions.
Computer system components
Firstly, computers act as a collection of hardware and software. Hardware means the physical components that make up a computer system. Software is the programs (instructions) that tell the computer what to do. Especially, the motherboard is the main component. It is a printed circuit board that performs the key functions to enable the smooth running of the computer. Not only the motherboard but also the CPU is always the main component of the computer and that is the heart of the computer. Furthermore, RAM and ROM conduct the memory or storage part of the computer. IN addition to that display, floppy drive, keyboard, mouse, CD-ROM drive, sound card, VGA card up are some other components of the computer.
History of the computer
There are six generations of computer history.
Firstly, Abacus was the pioneer of the computer history that was founded by the Chinese in 405 B C. It could only do basic mathematical functions such as additions and subtractions. Therefore “Pascaline” and “Difference & Analytical Engine” machines invented to succeed in other basic mathematical functions including multiplication and division.
First Generation (1940-1956)
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. Besides the first generation computers relied on machine language (lower level). UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. But it was expensive and difficult to operate. Moreover, using a great deal of electricity, generating a lot of heat and a large computer size are some disadvantages of this generation.
Second Generation (1956-1963)
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. As well as that generation used assembly languages. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory. Obviously, the second generation computer was cheaper, smaller, lower generated heat, and faster than the first generation.
Third Generation (1964-1971)
An especially third-generation used Integrated Circuits (IC). Keyboards, monitors, and interfaces with operating systems were replaced. To, it used high-level programming languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN. Third-generation computers were more efficient, reliable, lower-cost very speed and easy to operate than previous generations.
Fourth Generation (1971-present)
Undoubtedly this generation use microprocessors and all the components located with the computer. On the other hand keyboard, mouse, monitor, speakers, and especially GUI interfaces are used in this generation. However these computers are very efficient, more powerful, speed, and small. There are even portable and handheld computers today.
Fifth Generation (present and beyond)
Fifth-generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence. This generation of computers is still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.
Types of computers
Mainly computers can classify according to three categories namely analog, hybrid, and digital. Analog computers are used to process continuous data such as voltage, current, sound, speed, temperature, pressure, etc. Digital Computers. Also, a digital computer is an electronic computing machine that uses the binary digits (bits) 0 and 1 to represent all forms of information internally in digital form. However, hybrid computers have the best features of both analog and digital.
Digital computers can be categorized as purpose wise and size-wise. In purpose wise, there are two types. The first one is general-purpose computers and the other one special-purpose computers. Likewise, computers can classify according to sizes, speed, and memory capacity. Computers are different types of Super Computers, Mainframe Computers, Mini Computers, Micro/Personal Computers. Today we are using the desktop, laptop, tablet pc, or handheld pc which falls under microcomputers. They use different input devices such as the keyboard, mouse joysticks, and speakers and also use different storage devices namely hard disk, floppy disk, CD, etc. As well as a visual display screen (monitor), speakers and/or a printer is used to get the output.